Linux 101: Hardware devices and kernel modules

From time to time, working directly on a Linux machine it could happen that a hardware feature is not working properly. So how do we solve the issue or at least check where the issue is coming from? In order to troubleshoot hardware problems in Linux, we first will need to proceed with inspections. Therefore below you can find some example commands to do these actions. 

The first one lspci is a utility that displays information about PCI buses in the system and devices connected to it. 


The second one lsusb is also a utility but in this case, it displays only information about USB buses in the system and the devices connected to it. 

The devices could be operational or not, depending on the fact that they have the appropriate software (kernel modules) or we could call them also drivers. Could be part of the official Linux kernel or added from other sources. 

As there are some restrictions in what we may be able to see, I would recommend using the root user when we try to inspect hardware devices to avoid seeing only a limited listing. 

An easy way to verify if a hardware device has the proper kernel module in use is using this command. 

lspci -s address of the device -v
lspci -s 02:01.0-v


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