We can specify in our filesystem, how much space should be dedicated to the "root" files.
We could do that using the "-m" parameter with the "mkfs.ext4" command.
The default space dedicated to the "privileged" files is "5%".
We can reserve "10%" of the filesystem to the "privileged" space using the below command:
We do that to keep the "normal" files from using up too much space at the expense of the "privileged" files used by "privileged" programs or the "root" user.
We could either use "mkfs -t ext4" or "mkfs.ext4"
The "fsck.ext4" command:
The "fsck.ext4" command is used to check the "ext4" filesystems and to correct the errors.
We could use it as below:
We can see that since the "/dev/sdb1" partition is mounted, we can't check it.
Since our partition is mounted on the "/mnt" directory, we unmount it first using the below command:
Then we could check it using the below command:
In case the partition has issues, it is better to use the "fsck.ext4" command with the "-y" parameter to be able to interact with the command by answering its questions:
The "tune2fs" command:
To change the parameters of a filesystem, we could use the "tune2fs" command.
For example, we could change the percentage allocated to the "root" files, that was set in the above example to "10%", by using the below command:
We change the percentage to "1%".
We could also use "tune2fs" to label a filesystem using the "-L" parameter.
Then we could use the label instead of the partition name "/dev/sdb1" for example with the "mount" command.
We could give our partition "/dev/sdb1" the label "my-partition" for example:
We could use that label in the "/etc/fstab" by mentioning "LABEL= my-partition" instead "/dev/sdb1".
This avoid confusing the system when adding a new hard drives, since the labels don't change when we add new drives as opposed to the partition names which could change from "/dev/sdb" to "/dev/sdc" causing errors.